By-Laws



Article I - Regional Area
The geographical boundary lines of the Association shall include the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington (United States of America); the countries under the Compact of Freely Associated States; Guam; and the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan,(Canada).

Article II - Dues
Section 1. Dues
Annual membership dues shall be assessed for each Member Institution and for each Associate Member. Any changes to dues will be submitted by the Executive Board to the membership for approval at the Annual Business Meeting. Each Institution and Associate Members may list all eligible Active Members. Payment of the dues shall entitle the listed member to the voting status specified in Article III, Section 6 of the constitution, to the member rate for conference fees, member access to the PACRAO website, and Association publications.

Section 2. Waivers
There shall be no annual dues charged to Honorary Members. Honorary Members shall have their registration fee waived for the annual conference.

Section 3. Deadlines
Member Institutions and Associate Members will be billed for annual dues in April of each year. Payment is expected upon receipt of billing. If payment is not received from a Member Institution or Associate Member by July 1, that membership will be considered inactive until payment is received. Any Member Institution or Associate Member resuming an active membership by bringing the payment of dues up to date must be eligible under the provision of Article III in the constitution at the time of payment.

Article III - Meetings
Section 1. Date and Location
The Association shall hold an annual conference in October or November of each year. The location and date will be chosen, with due regard to geographical rotation, by the Executive Board which shall also have the power to advance or to postpone. The Executive Board may cancel an annual conference in case of emergency.

Section 1.1. Site Selection
Association conference sites are selected approximately three years in advance based on guidelines that rotate the locations across the Association regions. Qualifications for possible site locations are addressed in the Association Conference Site Selection Guidelines.

Section 2. Business
Association business shall be conducted at the formal annual business meeting by the Active Members present and shall include at least (1) the election of officers; (2) reports from officers and committees, with provision for the adoption of Association resolutions; (3) action on proposed amendments to the constitution and bylaws; and (4) new business, which must be submitted to the President for inclusion in the agenda at least 24 hours before the formal annual business meeting. Except for amendments to the constitution and bylaws, action may be taken by a majority of those present and voting.

Section 3. Executive Board
Meetings of the Executive Board shall be called by the President (or President-Elect, if necessary) as needed. Four voting members of the Board (in addition to the President, or President-Elect if the President-Elect has called the meeting) constitute a quorum. Any vote taken requires a majority for approval, with the President (or President-Elect if the President-Elect has called the meeting), voting in the case of a tie.

Article IV - Terms of Offices
Section 1. Terms
The terms of office for all elected officers of the Association, with the exception of the President-Elect, shall be for two years. The President-Elect serves three consecutive years on the Executive Board. A President-Elect is elected annually, with the Treasurer and Vice President for Publications and Information Technology being elected on alternate years from the Secretary, Vice President for Membership and Vice President for Professional Development.

The elected members of the Nominations and Elections Committee shall serve for one year, except for the member who received the most votes. That individual serves for two years and serves as the Vice Chair of the Nominations and Elections Committee the second year. However should any annual conference be cancelled (or the time for it changed), the interval between two consecutive conferences shall be counted as one year in the administration of the provisions of this section.

Section 2. Calendar
All officers, except the Treasurer, shall hold office from the adjournment of the formal annual business meeting in which they were elected until adjournment of the formal annual business meeting in which their successors are elected. The Treasurer shall hold office for two fiscal years, beginning February 1.

Section 3. Vacancies
In the event of a vacancy in the office of the President, the President-Elect will succeed to the presidency. In the event of a vacancy in the office of President-Elect, the current Vice President for Professional Development will succeed to that position and then to the presidency. In the event of a vacancy in the offices of the Vice President for Professional Development, the Vice President for Publications and Information Technology, the Vice President for Membership, the Treasurer or the Secretary, the Executive Board may appoint a current Executive Board member to assume those responsibilities, or may appoint another person from the eligible membership, to serve the remainder of the term. In the event of a vacancy in the office of the Past President, the next most recent and willing Past President will be appointed by the President. In the event of a vacancy on the Nominations and Elections Committee, after utilizing the two alternates, the President may appoint a person from the eligible membership. In the event that a situation arises which is not covered by the succession process outlined above, the Executive Board may appoint an eligible active member to fill the vacancy.

Article V - Duties of Officers

Section 1. Common Duties for All Officers
Each officer shall perform the duties of an officer, including the duties as a member of any committee of the Association. This service should be conducted in good faith, and in the best interests of the Association, including reasonable inquiry and fiduciary responsibility.

Section 2. President
With the support of the Executive Board, the President shall assume full responsibility for all general activities of the Association, oversee the program and local arrangements for the annual conference, with the chairs of the Local Arrangements Committee and Program Committee, oversee all financial obligations, and approve all Association bills before payment by the Treasurer. The President also has responsibility to appoint the Local Arrangements Committee Chair, the Program Committee Chair, the Diversity Development Advocate, and the Business Partner Liaison. The President shall serve as Chairperson of the Executive Board and shall be a member ex-officio of all committees of the Association except the Nominations and Elections Committee.

Section 3. President-Elect
The President-Elect shall act as the chief assistant to the President and shall succeed to the presidency at the end of the term of the President. The President-Elect shall be responsible for strengthening the Association's relationship with leadership from state and province associations, the membership and with business partners and exhibitors. The President-Elect works with the Vice President for Membership and Treasurer to foster greater Association membership throughout the Pacific region. The President-Elect identifies individuals to serve in the following roles to run concurrent with his or her presidency: Local Arrangements Committee Chair, Program Committee Chair, Diversity Development Advocate, and Business Partner Liaison.

Section 4. Past President
The Past President shall serve as adviser to the President, the Executive Board, and to the membership. The Past President is responsible for site selection for a future annual conference; for the Association archives; for review of the constitution and bylaws; and for coordinating awards, certificates, and honorary membership nominations. The Past President chairs the Nominations and Elections Committee.

Section 5. Vice President for Professional Development
The Vice President for Professional Development shall be responsible for developing and promoting professional development opportunities across the region outside of the annual conference; and, as appropriate, for working with the annual conference Program Committee Chair to suggest potential speakers and session presenters, and for the new member orientation session at the annual conference. The Vice President for Professional Development chairs the PACRAO Review Editorial Board.

Section 6. Vice President for Membership
The Vice President for Membership, with the assistance of the President-Elect and Treasurer, shall be responsible for developing and implementing plans for building Association membership, for collecting annual dues and baseline data used to maintain and update the Association's directory, in accordance with the provisions of Article III of the constitution, and for maintaining an active list of all members of the Association with their contact information. The Vice President for Membership chairs the Membership Development Committee.

Section 7. Vice President for Publications and Information Technology
The Vice President for Publications and Information Technology shall be responsible for disseminating information to members of the Association, via print and electronic communication, which includes the Association's newsletter and directory (with support from the Vice President of Membership) and provides leadership to the development and maintenance of the Association's website. The Vice President for Publications and Information Technology chairs the Publication and Information Technology Committee.

Section 8. Secretary
The Secretary shall be the custodian of the records of the Association; and shall keep the minutes of the formal annual business meeting and all meetings of Executive Board

Section 9. Treasurer
The Treasurer is responsible for maintaining the financial records of the Association; shall obtain the approval of the President on all bills before payment; and shall make an informal report to the members of the Association at the formal annual business meeting. The Treasurer shall enforce all fiscal policies and procedures for the Association and shall report any discrepancies to the Executive Board. The Treasurer will manage all banking activity for the President and President-Elect and for the Chairs of the Local Arrangements Committee and Program Committee, as appropriate, and shall reconcile each account. At the end of each year, the Treasurer shall prepare a complete formal report, including an accountant's review of financial statements, for distribution to the Executive Board and for submission to the next succeeding treasurer. The outgoing Treasurer will transition with the incoming Treasurer through the close of the fiscal year (January 31) following election of the new Treasurer.

Article VI - Standing Committees and Appointed Position
Section I. Standing Committees
With the exception of the Nominations and Elections Committee, standing or ad hoc committees may be appointed or dissolved by the President as deemed necessary for the work of the Association. All committee members must be Active Members of the Association.

Section 2. Nominations and Elections Committee
There will be an eight-member Nominations and Elections (N&E) Committee composed of six elected members, the highest vote recipient from the previous year's committee, who will serve as vice chair, and the past president who will serve as chair. At the concluding N&E Committee meeting, the incoming past president will join the committee and serve in an ex-officio, non-voting role, except in the case of a tie vote. The N&E Committee shall solicit nominations for the next N&E Committee, for the Audit Committee, and for Executive Board positions whose terms begin a year hence at the conclusion of the annual business meeting. The N&E Committee shall review all nominations and present a slate of nominees to the Executive Board and to the membership.

Section 3: Local Arrangements and Program Committees
The chairs of the Local Arrangements Committee and Program Committee are appointed by the President to plan and manage all components of the annual conference. The chairs report to the President and serve as ex-officio members of the Executive Board (non-voting members). The President-Elect will identify these chairs at the time of his or her election so that they may serve on the current committees, shadowing the current chairs, prior to formal appointment by the Executive Board. Each chair shall develop a budget for his or her committee and provide updates to the Executive Board and/or to the Treasurer, as requested.

Section 4: Diversity Development Advocate and Diversity Development Committee
The Diversity Development Advocate is appointed by and responsible to the President and serves as a voting member of the Executive Board and chairs the Diversity Development Committee. This committee is charged with keeping the Association engaged with issues and activities relevant to equity, diversity, and inclusion. It meets during the annual conference and is open to any interested member of the Association willing to commit time and energy to achieving committee goals during the year. The Diversity Development Advocate serves on the Program Committee and ensures that there are diversity sessions across the conference program while developing such sessions with the committee's help as well as recommending diversity speakers. The Diversity Development Advocate attends the winter board meeting both with the Executive Board and with the Program Committee and reports on the plans and the progress of the Diversity Development Committee. The Diversity Development Advocate also attends the summer board meeting and submits board reports prior to each meeting.

Section 5. Professional Development Committee
The Vice President for Professional Development chairs this committee. This committee develops and promotes professional development opportunities across the Pacific region, outside of the annual conference. This may include co-sponsoring workshops with state, provincial or national associations; creating an Association-sponsored workshop or summer seminar, writing articles and publishing such articles on the PACRAO website, etc. This committee meets during the annual conference and is open to any interested member of the Association willing to commit time and energy to achieving committee goals during the year.

Section 6: Membership Development Committee
The Vice President for Membership chairs this committee. This committee develops and implements strategies to invite institutional colleagues to join the Association and to assist in keeping member data accurate and up to date. This committee meets during the annual conference and is open to any interested member of the Association willing to commit time and energy to achieving committee goals during the year.

Section 7: Publications and Information Technology Committee
The Vice President for Publications and Information Technology chairs this committee. The committee strives to keep the Association current on new uses of technology in serving students and/or advancing the profession through suggesting sessions to the Program Committee for the annual conference; collaborates with the Professional Development Committee on needed workshops to be delivered to members across the region; and provides oversight for the maintenance and future development of the Association's website as a strategic communication tool. This committee meets during the annual conference and is open to any interested member of the Association willing to commit time and energy to achieving committee goals during the year.

Section 8: Business Partner Liaison
The Business Partner Liaison is appointed by and responsible to the President and serves as an ex-officio member of the Executive Board. The Liaison is responsible for promoting stronger ties between the Association and exhibitors and business partners. The Liaison develops a list of current and potential business partners and conference exhibitors and solicits financial support for the Association. The Business Partner Liaison attends the winter board meeting with the LAC Committee, the Program Committee, and the Executive Board; attends the summer board meeting; and submits board reports prior to each meeting. The Business Partner Liaison may be identified when the President-Elect starts his or her term so that the individual may shadow the current Liaison for a year and then be formally appointed by the Executive Board.

Section 9: Audit Committee
The Audit Committee is appointed by the Nominations and Elections Committee and is responsible for reviewing annually the Association's financial practices including the receipt and distribution of funds and the maintenance of financial records. The committee will prepare an annual report for the Executive Board of findings and recommendations regarding the Association's financial operations.

Article VII - Nominations and Elections
Section 1. Procedures for Election of the Nominations and Elections Committee
The Nominations and Elections (N&E) Committee is responsible for soliciting nominations and developing a slate of ten (10) nominees for the next year's N&E Committee and meets annually in conjunction with the Association's annual conference to prepare the slate of nominees. The ballot for the election of members to the N&E committee will be made available for all Active, Associate and Honorary Members. Active, Associate, and Honorary Members will be eligible to vote for up to six (6) candidates. Voting must be completed by the published deadline. The six (6) nominees receiving the most votes will serve on the committee. In addition, the highest vote recipient from the previous year's committee will serve as vice chair and the past president will serve as chair. Two (2) alternates shall be designated in descending order according to the vote received. The term of service will begin following the election of the N&E Committee and conclude with the N&E Committee meeting immediately following the annual business meeting.

Section 2. Procedures for Election of Officers
The N&E Committee is responsible for developing a slate of candidates for officers of the Association whose terms begin a year hence at the conclusion of the following annual business meeting. Only Active Members representing paid Member Institutions may be nominated and elected to office. The slate will be published on the Association website and announced again at the opening session of the annual conference. Additional nominations from the floor will be accepted at the opening session, and then the nominations will be closed. Voting occurs at the formal annual business meeting of the Association, held later during the annual conference.

Section 3. Procedures for Appointing the Audit Committee Member
The N&E Committee is responsible for appointing a member to serve on the Audit Committee for a two-year term, the first year as Secretary and the second year as Chair. The term begins upon appointment. Members of the Audit Committee must be independent of other duties within PACRAO, and therefore may not hold any other elected or appointed position within the Association for the duration of their service on the Audit Committee.

Section 4. Representation
The N&E Committee will prepare the slate of candidates with due respect for the membership of the Association in regard to geographical distributions, ethnicity, gender, public and private institutions, four-year and two-year institutions, and professional schools.

Section 5. Eligibility
Active Members representing paid Member Institutions are eligible to serve on the N&E Committee. With the exception of the past presidents, members of the N&E Committee must be independent of the PACRAO Executive Board in either elected or appointed capacities for their duration of their service on the N&E Committee. Members elected to the N&E Committee are not eligible to serve on the N&E Committee in successive years (except for the highest vote recipient from the previous year's committee who serves as vice chair the subsequent year) or to be a candidate for office during their term on the Nominations and Elections Committee.

Article VIII - Calendar Year
The fiscal year of the Association shall be February 1 to January 31.

Article IX - Amendments
These bylaws may be amended at any formal annual business meeting by a two-thirds affirmative vote of the Member Institutions present and voting, providing that notice of the proposed amendment has been sent to the members at least 30 days in advance of the meeting. A bylaws amendment not thus proposed in advance may be adopted by a four-fifths affirmative vote of the Member Institutions present and voting.

Previous (recent) revisions to the Constitution and Bylaws, based on Business Meeting minutes:

  • 2016: Revision to Bylaws Article VII (Nominations and Elections) - Section 2.Procedures for Election of Officers
  • 2015: Revision to Bylaws Article II (Dues) - Section 1.Dues; Revision to Bylaws Article VI (Standing Committees and Appointed Position) - Section 2.Nominations and Elections Committee; Revision to Bylaws Article VII (Nominations and Elections) - Section 1.Procedures for Election of the Nominations and Elections Committee, Section 2.Procedures for Election of Officers, Section 3.Procedures for Appointing the Audit Committee Member, Section 4.Representation, and Section 5.Eligibility
  • 2014: Revision to include attendance of the Diversity Development Advocate and Business Partner Liaison at both the Winter and Summer Executive Board meetings.
  • 2013: Complete line-by-line review and update of both documents. Aligns language about N&E Committee in the Constitution and Bylaws; adds an Audit Committee; clarifies language throughout; updates articles based on PACRAO's current practice, timelines, appointments, membership, and officer duties; edits language for consistency.
  • 2012: Revision to Bylaws Article VI - Standing Committees, Section 2. Nominations and Elections Committee; Revision to Bylaws Revision to Article VII - Nominations and Elections, Section 4. Eligibility.
  • 2008: Revision to Bylaws Article III: Added Section 1.A regarding site selection. Revision to Bylaws Article V: Deleted Section 9 and added duties to Section 3; removed "immediate" from all instances in Section 3. Revisions to Bylaws Article VI: modified language to require active Association membership to serve on committees. Revised Bylaws Article VII: Changed "mailed" to "emailed" and updated number of committee members to six (6).
  • 2005: Revision to Bylaws Article II: The annual membership dues were increased for $75.00 to $125.00.
  • 2002: Revision to Article II: eliminating limit on active members covered by annual membership dues, redefining deadlines and status of active and inactive membership, and adding section on extended and retired members.
  • 1999: Revision to Executive Board and Standing Committees
  • 1996: Revision to change membership dues from $50 to $75. Revision also limits member institutions, organizations, and agencies to 4 (four) active members. Additional members may be listed upon payment of $15 per additional member.
  • 1995: Line by line review and revision. (by Christine Kerlin)
  • 1993: Add EEO responsibilities to President.
  • 1994: Corporations may be non-voting members.
  • 1987: Change some duties of Executive Board.
  • 1985: Revisions to Nominations and Elections process.
  • 1983: Change membership dues from $35 to $50.
  • 1980: Change membership dues from $25 to $50.
  • 1979: Add a second vice-president and non-voting member section.
  • 1978: Clarified that individual members must be from an institution that meets membership criteria; deleted student membership; added Trust Territories.



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